Major Oil producing nations and corporations are expected to come under huge pressure to contribute far more to climate action at COP28.

The UN global Climate Summit starts in Dubai tomorrow and involves almost 200 countries.

The first global stock-take of how well countries are delivering their climate promises will also be a key focus.

The United Nations General Secretary Antonio Guterres has warned that the world is heading for 3 degrees of warming.

He urged leaders attending COP28 not to let the hopes of people around the world melt away.

There has been major criticism of the COP28 hosts, the United Arab Emirates, after details emerged showing they plan to avail of opportunities and meetings around this climate summit to progress new oil and gas deals with foreign governments.

How can they do that, it is argued, when fossil fuels are the cause of climate change in the first place.

So, a testy start, at the very least, might be expected when this UN Summit gets under way tomorrow.

The United Nations emphasises that the window of opportunity to prevent runaway climate devastation is rapidly closing and greenhouse gases need to be halved by 2030.

It is also warning that the greenhouse gases that will be emitted over the lifetime of existing and planned coal and oil facilities is three-and-half times above the limit for keeping global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

The COP28 summit will run for two weeks in Dubai

Dr Cara Augustenborg, Assistant Professor in Environmental Policy at UCD and a member of the Climate Change Advisory Council, says this is going to be a COP summit that divides nations between those who are dependent on fossil fuels, and those who want to get rid of them.

"There is now less than a 14% chance of limiting warming to 1.5 degrees and in order to stay below 2°C of warming the world is going to have to reduce emissions by between 28% and 40%."

Jerry MacEvilly, Head of Policy at Friends of the Earth in Ireland agrees.

He says fossil fuels have been the elephant in the room at climate negotiations for the past twenty years. They have never been properly addressed.

He said: "Significant and possibly transformational new commitments are expected to be agreed on renewable energy and energy efficiency at the climate summit. But we have to be clear. Such commitments on their own will not be sufficient. They will not ensure that greenhouse gas emissions drop fast enough. Nor will they prevent the world being continuously locked-in to fossil fuel usage for decades to come."

Tomorrow in Dubai the WMO - the World Meteorological Organisation - will underscore how important it is that significant progress is made at this COP28 with a major report outlining the State of the Global Climate in 2023 as temperatures soared.

On Saturday, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar will outline Ireland's position supporting greater ambition on climate.

Meanwhile, Environment and Climate Minister Eamon Ryan is expected to play a key Ministerial role in the negotiations for the European Union.

He will be aiming to ensure the major Loss and Damage Fund for vulnerable and poorer countries impacted by climate disasters agreed at COP27 last year gets up and running.

That will involve getting agreement about new sources of funding which could include the international aviation and shipping industries.

This COP28 summit will last for two weeks.